Clusters as Economic Growth Poles: The Case of the Bavarian Biotechnology Cluster
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Publish date: 2012-09-30
Gospodarka Narodowa 2012;258(9):61–78
The article focuses on business clusters, which have become a popular method for organizing business operations, based on the geographical and sectoral concentration of enterprises. Business clusters are analyzed primarily in the context of the growth pole theory formulated by French economist François Perroux. Under this approach, sectoral polarization, or the rapid development of some sectors of the economy, influences spatial polarization, which means the emergence of locations (referred to as growth poles) characterized by a higher growth rate than other areas. This article aims to validate the hypothesis that clusters can act as growth poles for the economy because they represent an effective mechanism for concentrating resources and stimulating cooperation, conducive to the further development of the sector. This hypothesis is validated on the basis of an analysis of the Bavarian Biotechnology Cluster, which is one of the strongest biotechnology centers in Europe. This cluster acts as a growth pole for Germany’s Bavaria region, influencing the development of the biotechnology sector, one of the most advanced sectors of the regional economy. The Bavarian Biotechnology Cluster also helps disseminate knowledge and innovation, thus contributing to greater innovation and competitiveness of the regional economy. The growing popularity of clustering and the concept of cluster-based development policies have encouraged the Bavarian authorities to take action to support this form of cooperation in the economy. These measures cover the biotechnology sector, one of the key sectors of the Bavarian economy.