TNC Expansion from 1990 to 2013
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Publish date: 2015-12-31
Gospodarka Narodowa 2015;280(6):101–128
The paper traces the expansion of transnational corporations (TNC), with a particular focus on their foreign subsidiaries, economic position and the key sectors in which they were involved from 1990 to 2013. The author asks three fundamental questions: 1) What significant changes occurred in the process of TNC expansion during this period? 2) Is the importance of TNCs from developing and transition economies growing? 3) What are the future prospects of TNC development in the global economy? The paper is the result of a study of literature on the topic and UNCTAD statistical data. The author formulates a thesis that the role of TNCs from developing and transition economies in foreign direct investment (FDI) has grown since the 1990 s, while the proportion of TNCs from developed countries has shrunk. This testifies to the growing investment power of corporations from developing and transition economies, and it also means that global competition will increase in the future, the author says. According to the author, the main conclusions from the conducted analysis are as follows: 1) TNC expansion is intensifying, as reflected by an increased number of corporations and their subsidiaries abroad as well as their stronger economic position; 2) TNC from developing and transition economies play an increasing role in foreign investment; 3) In 2011, the value of FDI inflows to developed countries equalled that of FDI inflows to developing and transition countries; 4) Over the past decade, TNCs from Asia, especially China, have participated in many mergers and takeovers, achieving a positive net balance of acquisitions (versus the net balance of sales posted by corporations from developed countries such as the United States, Britain and Germany); 5) It is anticipated that global competition between TNCs will escalate because corporations from developing and transition countries aspire to maintain their fast-growing potential, while corporations from developed countries are seeking to regain their pre-crisis growth dynamics.