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Contents of issue 2/2017

Andrzej Cieślik - Export Diversification Curve in Light of the Ricardian Model, summary, article

Anna Chojecka, Joanna Tyrowicz - Omitted Variable Bias and Gender Wage Gap: Insights from Productivity Measures, summary, article

Paweł Felis, Henryk Rosłaniec - Using Property Tax to Shape Local Tax Policy: The Case of the Union of Polish Metropolises, summary, article

Artur Wyszyński - The Financial Situation of Polish Premier Division Soccer Clubs in Terms of the DEA Method, summary, article

Sławomir Pastuszka, Jurand Skrzypek - Convergence or Divergence of Italian Regions?, summary, article





Andrzej Cieślik - Export Diversification Curve in Light of the Ricardian Model

In this paper we identify the determinants of export diversification from the perspective of the Ricardian model with many goods. According to this approach, the export diversification of a country can be regarded as an outcome of two effects: a relative productivity change due to technological progress and a relative country size change due to labor force growth compared with the rest of the world. For example, in a country characterized by improved productivity and an increased share of the world stock of labor, diversification should grow, while in the case of a decreased share and improved productivity abroad, it should fall. From the theoretical perspective it is also possible that these two effects neutralize each other and diversification may remain unchanged.

Keywords: exports, diversification curve, Ricardian model
JEL classification codes: F11, F14, F43, O40, O11
Article: PDF



Anna Chojecka, Joanna Tyrowicz - Omitted Variable Bias and Gender Wage Gap: Insights from Productivity Measures

The aim of this study is to estimate the bias of the adjusted gender wage gaps when productivity is not directly measured. In this study we rely on a unique data set with productivity and wages for 2,292 employees in a Polish fashion retail firm. We apply parametric decomposition methods to evaluate the gender wage gap with and without productivity measures. Our results suggest that the bias stemming from an omitted variable may indeed be significant, sometimes even altering the direction of the conclusions. Most of the estimates of the gender wage gap adjusted for individual characteristics do not account for productivity indicators due to a lack of such indicators in most available data sets. Although our results are obtained using data for only one employer, they suggest that most of the adjusted gender wage gap estimates in the literature may be substantially biased.

Keywords: gender wage gap, productivity, parametric decomposition
JEL classification codes: J71, J31
Article: PDF



Paweł Felis, Henryk Rosłaniec - Using Property Tax to Shape Local Tax Policy: The Case of the Union of Polish Metropolises

Municipal taxes are connected with local tax governance, which includes the right of municipal authorities to shape the amounts of some taxes through establishing tax rates and introducing tax reliefs and exemptions. Therefore, it is important to identify and understand the reasons behind the policies of local authorities toward local taxes. The article concentrates on property tax, which is the most efficient local tax. The paper aims to show how municipal governments use opportunities provided by the law in force. For this reason, correlation methods were applied to establish the association between lowering tax rates and budget incomes and to explain the statistical diversification of property tax rates.
The study is based on two sources: official data provided by budget status reports (Rb-27s reports) and minutes from municipal council meetings that passed tax resolutions. The analysis covers 12 Polish cities that are members of the Union of Polish Metropolises. The results of the empirical study demonstrate diversity in the tax policies of large cities. The differences can to an extent be explained by the size and wealth of a city. What’s more, the results confirm that tax policy is correlated with city income, but this changes significantly over time.

Keywords: local tax governance, municipal tax policy, local taxes, property tax
JEL classification codes: E62, H71, H72, R51
Article: PDF



Artur Wyszyński - The Financial Situation of Polish Premier Division Soccer Clubs in Terms of the DEA Method

The aim of this article is to determine the financial standing of Polish Ekstraklasa premier-division soccer clubs. The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model is applied to study technical efficiency ratios based on financial ratios describing the clubs’ financial condition. Statistical and econometric analyses were carried out in order to assess the relationship between performance indicators and the financial situation of the clubs, specifically their liquidity, profitability and debt. This study shows that there is a strong relationship between the condition and efficiency of the clubs. This finding was confirmed by the results of an analysis of the effectiveness of clubs as well as regression analysis. The clubs are classified into two groups: effective and ineffective. Highly effective clubs are in a significantly better financial position than ineffective ones. The current liquidity ratio was the best discriminator separating the clubs into the two groups and having the greatest impact on their growing effectiveness as the three basic financial indicators were analyzed.
The impact of the two other indicators, profitability and debt, was much smaller. The discriminant function results were used to determine the financial standing of Ekstraklasa clubs in the 2014/2015 season.

Keywords: technical efficiency, soccer clubs, data envelopment analysis (DEA)
JEL classification codes: Z20, Z23, G20
Article: PDF



Sławomir Pastuszka, Jurand Skrzypek - Convergence or Divergence of Italian Regions?

The paper seeks to determine the occurrence of either convergence or divergence processes between Italian regions and to establish whether these processes are permanent or periodical in character. To achieve this aim, the authors use the following methods: analysis of the literature, clustering analysis, estimation of dynamic panel data models, and other statistical methods. The research is based on data downloaded from the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat). Four variables were taken into consideration: GDP per capita, investments per capita, gross wages per worker, and the unemployment rate. The study covered the period from 2000 to 2013, including a breakdown into two sub-periods: 2000-2007 (before the global financial crisis) and 2008-2013 (after the start of the crisis).
The authors have demonstrated that both convergence and divergence processes occur between Italian regions, but they take place mainly within macro-regions and refer to individual variables. Only in the case of the unemployment rate is it possible to speak of convergence as a general trend that occurs both nationwide and within macroregions. However, according to the authors, this trend may largely be due to factors such as labor migration from the south to the north of Italy, combined with hidden unemployment in agriculture and tourism. Moreover, official statistics omit unemployed persons seeking employment in the country’s southern regions. If the existing processes continue within Italy’s macroregions, they will likely increase the development gap between the Mezzogiorno area and the northern and central parts of the country.

Keywords: β and σ convergence/divergence, Italian regions, global financial crisis, dynamic panel data models
JEL classification codes: C23, O47, R1
Article: PDF

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