Gospodarka Narodowa
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Contents of issue 1/2017

Gabriela Grotkowska, Leszek Wincenciak, Tomasz Gajderowicz - Evolution of the Public-Sector Wage Premium in Poland, summary, article

Maciej Malaczewski - Conditions for the Transition of an Economy to Renewable Energy Sources, summary, article

Dorota Wawrzyniak - The Labor Market and Its Impact on Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe, summary, article

Mateusz Błaszczyk, Leszek Kwieciński, Magdalena Stawicka, Marek Wróblewski - Companies Active in Technology Parks and the Knowledge-Based Economy Paradigm, summary, article

Małgorzata Stefania Lewandowska, Tomasz Gołębiowski, Maja Szymura-Tyc, Małgorzata Rószkiewicz - Innovation Complementarity and New-Product Exports, summary, article

Joanna Wiśniewska-Paluszak - The Role of Networks in the Sustainable Development of Agribusiness, summary, article


REVIEWS

Book Review: Aleksandra Nocoń, System reagowania współczesnych banków centralnych na niestabilność sektora bankowego (Modern Central Bank Response to Banking System Instability), Difin, Warsaw 2016, 317 pp. - reviewed by Marek Lubiński

Book Review: Magdalena Sobocińska, Uwarunkowania i perspektywy rozwoju orientacji rynkowej w podmiotach sfery kultury (Bringing Market Mechanisms to Culture: Conditions and Prospects), Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, Wrocław 2015, 381 pp. - reviewed by Anna Dąbrowska





Gabriela Grotkowska, Leszek Wincenciak, Tomasz Gajderowicz - Evolution of the Public-Sector Wage Premium in Poland

The aim of this paper is to estimate the adjusted sectoral wage gap in Poland from 1999 to 2012. We use a set of individual data from a survey on the structure of earnings by occupation (SEO) carried out by Poland’s Central Statistical Office (CSO) every two years for businesses with more than nine employees. We apply quantile regression and the Ñopo decomposition method to address several methodological problems of wage differential analysis. We show that, after controlling for structural differences in employment, there is no clear trend in the evolution of the adjusted public-sector wage premium in Poland in recent years. The parametric approach indicates a positive and growing premium, with significant variations across different parts of the wage distribution. The non-parametric approach yields different results, indicating a negative premium with no clear trend in the 1999-2012 period, with a declining public-sector wage penalty in recent years. This means that the Polish labour market is becoming increasingly similar to its counterparts in developed countries in this respect.

Keywords: wage differentials, public sector wages, quantile regression, Ñopo decomposition, Poland
JEL classification codes: J31, J45
Article: PDF



Maciej Malaczewski - Conditions for the Transition of an Economy to Renewable Energy Sources

The gradual depletion of non-renewable resources is a fact. Such resources are used in the production process not only as a material, but also as the main energy source. The purpose of this paper is to make a comprehensive analysis of conditions for the transition of an economy to renewable energy sources. The analysis is conducted with the use of a simple mathematical model of the economy, taking into account the complementarity of energy and physical capital. The decision to switch to renewable energy sources is treated solely as an economic policy decision in the model. The necessary conditions are derived for an economy to give up non-renewable energy sources at a fixed point in the future. These conditions include a specific level of ecological preferences of society, low energy-intensiveness of physical capital, and a sufficient stock of natural energy resources.
The paper is theoretical in its nature. It establishes the influence of various macroeconomic aspects on the implementation of an intended economic policy.

Keywords: non-renewable natural resources, renewable sources of energy, complementarity between natural resources and physical capital
JEL classification codes: Q42, Q43, Q48
Article: PDF



Dorota Wawrzyniak - The Labor Market and Its Impact on Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe

The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of labor- market related factors on the influx of foreign direct investment to Central and Eastern European countries. Labor costs are expected to have a negative impact on FDI, while the quality and availability of labor are expected to have a positive impact.
The econometric study was conducted using panel data for 10 Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Hungary) from 1999 to 2012.
The empirical results indicate that increased labor costs lead to a drop in FDI in Central and Eastern Europe. The expected positive impact of the quality of labor on foreign direct investment inflows is in part reflected in the obtained results. One of two measures of the quality of labor used in the study, namely the share of people with tertiary education attainment in the population of people aged 30–34, has a statistically significant impact on FDI. This may suggest that foreign investors are looking for educated people, though mainly those who are relatively young. This conclusion, however, should be subject to further verification.
The quality of labor, measured by the unemployment rate, is not identified in the analysis as a statistically significant determinant of foreign direct investment.

Keywords: foreign direct investment (FDI), FDI determinants, labor market, CEE countries
JEL classification codes: F21, F23
Article: PDF



Mateusz Błaszczyk, Leszek Kwieciński, Magdalena Stawicka, Marek Wróblewski - Companies Active in Technology Parks and the Knowledge-Based Economy Paradigm

The main research aim of this paper is to identify the extent to which companies active in Poland’s technology parks are included in the knowledge-based economy paradigm. The article addresses the question of how such firms fit into the usual set of knowledge-based economy determinants. This question is accompanied by two basic assumptions that may be derived from research reports on economic development policies. First, the knowledge-based economy is a key segment of contemporary capitalism and it may thus be regarded as a pivotal factor of economic growth. Second, technology parks are potentially one of the basic tools to support the development of the knowledge-based economy. In this context, it is possible to hypothesize that technology parks agglomerate businesses that should be the vanguard of the knowledge-based economy.
The article presents the results of surveys carried out among companies operating in Polish technology parks. The research focused on three issues: (1) the commitment of companies to R&B, (2) intellectual property rights, and (3) the introduction of product and processes innovations. The analysis of the presented data made it possible to develop a classification of the surveyed enterprises by their approach to the challenges of the knowledge-based economy. The research findings do not make it possible to unequivocally validate the hypothesis that companies active in technology parks play a key role in the development of the knowledge-based economy. In fact, about half of them remain outside the knowledge-based economy paradigm.
In conclusion, the paper points to the need to redefine the role of Polish technology parks and their ways of operation.

Keywords: knowledge-based economy, technology park, innovation
JEL classification codes: O30, L22, L26
Article: PDF



Małgorzata Stefania Lewandowska, Tomasz Gołębiowski, Maja Szymura-Tyc, Małgorzata Rószkiewicz - Innovation Complementarity and New-Product Exports

Extensive empirical research has been dedicated to the links between firm innovation and exports and to the relationship between innovativeness and business cooperation. However, there has been little research into the links between innovation, innovation cooperation and exports. This results in a fragmentation of knowledge in this field in both Polish and international literature on the subject.
Most researchers focus on technological (product and process) innovation, while paying little attention to marketing and organizational innovation. Also, the complementarity of different types of innovation and their relation to exports is rarely taken into account.
Moreover, studies on cooperation in innovation processes rarely take up the issue of cooperation partners, particularly in the context of exports.
This paper intends to complement this knowledge. The findings are based on an analysis of firm-level empirical data collected by Poland’s Central Statistical Office (GUS) in the Polish version of the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) for 2008-2010.
The results of the analysis show that combining various types of innovation as well as innovation cooperation, especially with foreign partners, enhance the international competitive advantage of Polish manufacturing firms and increase the intensity of new-product exports.

Keywords: innovation, cooperation, export intensity, Community Innovation Survey, classification tree algorithm
JEL classification codes: O31, L25, L60
Article: PDF



Joanna Wiśniewska-Paluszak - The Role of Networks in the Sustainable Development of Agribusiness

This article explores the role of networks in the sustainable development of agribusiness.
The analyzed economic approaches show a diverse range of ways in which networks are understood, and the conducted conceptualization of networks underlines their specific dimensions and aspects in the sustainable development of agribusiness.
The purpose and functions of networks in agribusiness are examined in the study, and the related dilemmas are identified.
The studied concept of the network may be the way to overcome barriers in access to resources. By joining forces and forming networks, agribusiness companies are also able to undertake activities unavailable to individual enterprises as they seek sustainable development.

Keywords: network, conceptualization, agribusiness, sustainable development
JEL classification codes: L14, M21, Q13
Article: PDF

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