Gospodarka Narodowa
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Contents of issue 1/2016

Zbigniew Dokurno, Bogusław Fiedor, Bartosz Scheuer - The Discourse on the Green Economy from Macroeconomic and Methodological Perspective, summary, article

Łukasz Arendt - The Solow Paradox and the Productive Use of Information and Communication Technology, summary, article

Iwo Augustyński - The Economic Impact of a Higher Tax-Free Threshold on Personal Income in Poland, summary, article

Paweł Strawiński, Aleksandra Majchrowska, Paulina Broniatowska - The Employment of Women in Poland and How It Changed from 2000 to 2013, summary, article

Wojciech Lichota - The Financial Effectiveness of Poland’s Special Economic Zones, summary, article

Łukasz Majer - Post-Crisis Liquidity Regulations and their Impact on Organizational Changes in Poland’s Cooperative Banking Sector, summary, article


REVIEWS

Book Review: Martin Dahl, Niemiecki Model Społecznej Gospodarki Rynkowej - jako wzór dla polskich przemian systemowych po 1989 roku (The German Social Market Economy as a Model for Poland’s Transition after 1989), Dom Wydawniczy ELIPSA, Warsaw 2015, 378 pp. - reviewed by Piotr Pysz

Book Review: Anna Dąbrowska, Felicjan Bylok, Mirosława Janoś-Kresło, Dariusz Kiełczewski, Irena Ozimek, Kompetencje konsumentów. Innowacyjne zachowania i  zrównoważona konsumpcja (Consumer Competence: Innovative Behavior and Sustainable Consumption), Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne, Warsaw 2015, 199 pp. - reviewed by Tomasz Zalega





Zbigniew Dokurno, Bogusław Fiedor, Bartosz Scheuer - The Discourse on the Green Economy from Macroeconomic and Methodological Perspective

The paper aims to contribute to macroeconomic and methodological discourse on the concept of a green economy from the perspective of sustainable development. The authors hypothesize that the legitimacy and cognitive effectiveness (“heuristic fertility”) of the green economy concept and the effective implementation of its principles are closely related to intersubjective methodological discourse in this area. In their research, the authors use recent methodology advances, referring to various constructivist approaches and providing a critical analysis of the so-called correspondence approach.
The article juxtaposes the macroeconomic context of research into the green economy and the knowledge-based economy (KBE) with the theory of sustainable development. The authors propose a wider approach to the KBE, taking into account axiological aspects and cultural processes accompanying the creation of knowledge and making the green economy take different forms in various countries.
The authors argue that a knowledge-based economy is an open, complex and dynamic subsystem in which qualitative changes are triggered by the wisdom of units capable of promoting more efficient and better solutions through a broader cognitive perspective.
Such a definition of KBE implies the need to discover and understand various subtle links between the economy and other subsystems: environmental and social. Economic activity needs to be adapted to the potential of these subsystems, which is particularly important from the perspective of the green economy. This creates a situation in which the rational actions of individuals are not only based on simple arithmetic calculations but also refer to ethical value judgments.

Keywords: knowledge-based economy, green economy, sustainable development, methodology, macroeconomics
JEL classification codes: B41, E02, O44, Q56
Article: PDF



Łukasz Arendt - The Solow Paradox and the Productive Use of Information and Communication Technology

The paper presents the main arguments that explain the causes for a productivity paradox formulated by American economist Robert M. Solow in 1987 in connection with the rapid development of information and communication technology. The paper discusses the conditions that need to be met to support the growth of productivity related to the use of ICT, particularly in developing countries.
The analysis is based on a literature review focusing on the Solow paradox. It argues that there are two prerequisites to “see” a positive impact of ICT on productivity statistics: the time necessary for the completion of learning-by-doing processes, and the existence of ICT complementarities. ICT complementarities usually include changes in workplace organization and business processes, coupled with investment in human capital, foreign direct investment and the creation of an entrepreneurship-friendly institutional environment.
The main conclusion from the analysis - in the context of how developing countries take advantage of ICT investment to accelerate the convergence process – is that special attention should be paid to ICT complementarities. They are a key determinant of a productive use of ICT. Research studies reviewed in the article show that it is not enough to simply invest in ICT capital stock (through investment in hardware and software) in order to materialize the benefits of ICT. Complementary investments are also necessary, mainly in human capital, changes in workplace organization at the enterprise level, and investment in intangible assets.

Keywords: productivity, information and communication technology, ICT complementarities, Solow paradox
JEL classification codes: D24, E24, O33, O47
Article: PDF



Iwo Augustyński - The Economic Impact of a Higher Tax-Free Threshold on Personal Income in Poland

The paper analyzes the economic impacts of a personal income tax reform in Poland. The reform would be based on increasing a tax-free threshold on personal income to 12 times the subsistence level of a one-person household. The results could be threefold: first, a decline in government income from personal income tax (PIT); second, an increase in government income from consumption tax (VAT); third, increased consumption triggering a rise in domestic production and generating additional government income. This could reduce the proportion of public debt to GDP.
A short-term analysis of the first two impacts was performed by calculating the real level of private consumption tax, the number of PIT taxpayers, and total revenue from PIT. The post-Keynesian Stock-Flow Consistent model was employed to estimate long-term impacts.
The analysis shows that the short-term effects of the reform would reduce government income by 3.1% while increasing the deficit by 19.1% (according to 2013 data). In the long term, the triggered rise in consumption and savings would spur GDP growth. This, in turn, would cause personal income to grow owing to multiplier effects. While the budget deficit would increase, the public debt-to-GDP ratio would fall. Thus the reform would not create the risk of surpassing the constitutional thresholds for this ratio.

Keywords: Stock-Flow Consistent (SFC) models, public debt, personal income, income tax
JEL classification codes: E62, E12
Article: PDF



Paweł Strawiński, Aleksandra Majchrowska, Paulina Broniatowska - The Employment of Women in Poland and How It Changed from 2000 to 2013

The aim of the study is to analyze occupational and sectoral gender segregation on the Polish labor market in 2000–2013. The paper analyzes gender segregation in employment in different occupational groups and business sectors as defined by the Polish Classification of Economic Activities (PKD). An attempt was made to determine how the structure of employment changed as a result of a significant increase in the number of women with a higher education on the Polish labor market.
The analysis shows that women dominate in professions and sectors such as healthcare and education, while men dominate in professions and sectors that require more physical effort, such as construction. To a large extent, the existing division is not the result of discrimination, but reflects the psychological, physical and cultural aspects of employing women and men.
As many educated women entered the labor market, the percentage of women working in professions requiring higher qualifications and holding managerial positions increased during the studied period. At the same time, the concentration of female employment in female-dominated professions and sectors increased further, and men continued to be employed in male-dominated professions and sectors.

Keywords: gender segregation, employment, women, labor market
JEL classification codes: I21, J16, J21, J82
Article: PDF



Wojciech Lichota - The Financial Effectiveness of Poland’s Special Economic Zones

The study evaluates of the financial effectiveness of special economic zones (SEZ) in Poland. The author investigates factors influencing the financial performance of the zones by analyzing the benefits and costs of SEZ operations in Poland. The study covers the period of 1996–2012. The analysis shows that the benefits of SEZ operation substantially outweigh the costs. As of the end of 2012, the cumulative benefits amounted to PLN 80.9 billion, while total costs were PLN 15.4 billion.
The article includes an assessment of the financial standing of 50 enterprises operating in Poland’s special economic zones, based on their financial statements.
The author uses discriminatory and logit methods and investigates banking procedures to determine the financial standing of companies. The analysis finds that 48 companies had a good financial standing while two were not doing well financially. The article assesses the impact of the economic crisis on the performance of Poland’s special economic zones.
The author examines the impact of the latest crisis on the financial standing of companies.
The research indicates that Poland’s special economic zones are effective financially. Even though their operation has generated a great deal of controversy, they have contributed to the economic development of the country, mainly through the creation of new jobs.

Keywords: special economic zones, financial analysis, financial standing
JEL classification codes: E60, G00, G01
Article: PDF



Łukasz Majer - Post-Crisis Liquidity Regulations and their Impact on Organizational Changes in Poland’s Cooperative Banking Sector

The article assesses the impact of the European Union’s CRD IV/CRR capital requirements package - comprising the Capital Requirements Directive IV and the Capital Requirements Regulation - on the liquidity of cooperative banks in Poland. The author analyzes the regulations in question and examines cooperative bank data using statistical methods.
The analysis finds that cooperative bank deposits in Poland are stable despite a crisis of confidence on the interbank market. The research also shows that there is a significant regulation mismatch in terms of the structure and nature of Poland’s cooperative banking sector.
The author concludes that the new regulations are set to bring positive changes to cooperative banks in Poland, which may be essential for their future operation and development.

Keywords: bank, liquidity, capital adequacy, cooperative banking
JEL classification codes: G21, G28, K29
Article: PDF

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