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Contents of issue 7-8/2013

Marta Czarnecka-Gallas - The Efficiency of Industrial Policy in 21st Century? The Case of Brazil, summary, article

Andrzej Sznajder - The Impact of Mobile Technology on the Marketing Activities of Companies, summary, article

Ewa Miklaszewska, Katarzyna Mikołajczyk, Małgorzata Pawłowska - Post-crisis Regulatory Architecture and Central and East European Banks, summary, article

Anna Golejewska - Competitiveness, Innovation and Regional Development. The Case of the Visegrad Group Countries, summary, article

Dorota Czyżewska - The Competitiveness of the French Economy in the Wake of the Economic Crisis, summary, article

Konrad Dymarski - Population Segmentation and the Estimated Size of the Shadow Economy, summary, article


REVIEWS

Book Review: Marzenna Anna Weresa, Systemy innowacyjne we współczesnej gospodarce światowej (Innovation Systems in the Contemporary World Economy), Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warsaw 2012, 352 pp. - reviewed by Krystyna Poznańska

Book Review: Francois Chesnais, Bezprawne długi. Jak banki sterują demokracją (Les dettes illégitimes – Quand les banques font main basse sur les politiques publiques), Instytut Wydawniczy Książka i Prasa, Warsaw 2012, 167 pp. - reviewed by Marek Lubiński

Book Review: Lesław Niemczyk, Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości (Financial Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital: A New Branch of Accounting), Pacioli Institute, Rzeszów 2013, 260 pp. - reviewed by Tomasz Śpiewak





Marta Czarnecka-Gallas - The Efficiency of Industrial Policy in 21st Century? The Case of Brazil

The article aims to identify the key factors that undermine the efficiency of industrial policy in Brazil. It also draws attention to the importance of academic research into the nature and implications of industrial policy in the modern economy.
The analysis starts with a systematization of industrial policy-related terms and a literature review. Because discussions on the topic are usually ideologically-biased, the author says, most of the existing studies are heavily polarized. Some economists strongly advocate governmental industrial programs, others express definite disapproval.
The article contributes to the existing research by outlining key theoretical problems related to industrial policy and by highlighting the different approaches to the subject that have emerged in response to the changing paradigm of state interventionism.
In light of the theoretical framework, Brazilian industrial policy is studied. Brazil warrants special attention, Czarnecka-Gallas says, because a historical analysis of government intervention in that economy confirms the importance of industrial policy – despite substantial policy changes and different methods used by the authorities over the years.
After a brief summary of how industrial policy was applied in Brazil in the postwar era, the author looks at some vital components of the country’s current industrial strategy and confronts it with empirical data that point to a disparity between official goals and practice.
As a consequence, in contrast to the strategy of Brazil’s economic development, which is based on industrial growth and innovation enhancement, the structure of the country’s economy and its trade patterns show that it is commodities and low-tech industries rather than innovative sectors that are driving the expansion of Brazil’s trade, the author says.

Keywords: industrial policy, international trade, industrialization, development, Brazil
JEL classification codes: O14, O21, O24, O25, O54
Article: PDF



Andrzej Sznajder - The Impact of Mobile Technology on the Marketing Activities of Companies

The article analyzes the impact of new information technology on business, with a special focus on mobile technology.
New information technology influences the development of the economy, turning it into what is known as “the new economy” or “the digital economy,” the author says.
The article aims to identify contemporary trends influencing the development of the mobile business. The research method used is based on an analysis of secondary data, including publications on the mobile business, in addition to European Union statistics, reports by Polish and international consulting companies and mobile marketing agencies, and data published by leading telecommunications companies.
The author sets out to confirm the hypothesis that the introduction of new information technology is one of the most important factors influencing the economic development of many countries, including Poland.
The mobile business is entering a new era called the PC+ era and marked by the use of not only general-purpose desktop and laptop computers, but also mobile devices, Sznajder says.
Contemporary technology and consumer trends influence the business activities of many companies, especially in the field of marketing. Thanks to mobile information technology, companies can make more effective marketing decisions in areas such as product development, prices, distribution systems and promotion, according to the author. Under such conditions, the interaction of companies with their customers is changing considerably. Companies from different sectors are embracing these trends to improve their competitiveness, the author says. They are developing the mobile business by using both traditional offline methods and modern online methods.

Keywords: new economy, mobile technology, mobile business
JEL classification codes: M15, M31
Article: PDF



Ewa Miklaszewska, Katarzyna Mikołajczyk, Małgorzata Pawłowska - Post-crisis Regulatory Architecture and Central and East European Banks

The article aims to contribute to the debate on the implications of changes in the regulatory architecture for banks in the wake of the global financial crisis. The main research question is whether the post-crisis regulatory architecture will have a  positive or negative long-term impact on bank stability and efficiency, with a focus on Central and Eastern European (CEE) banks. To answer these questions, the article analyzes how CEE banks reacted to two different periods: the pre-crisis period of dynamic credit market expansion and the period of the global economic slowdown after the 2008 crisis. Efficiency is analyzed using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method, in addition to competitive conditions measures (H-statistics), and the Z-score index.
The empirical part of the article supports the assertion that safe and efficient banks in CEE create sound systems and have survived the global financial crisis in better condition than their counterparts in Western Europe. However, post-crisis regulatory restructuring will likely have a negative impact on their long-term growth, the authors say.

Keywords: banking regulation, bank efficiency and stability, CEE banks
JEL classification codes: G21, G28
Article: PDF



Anna Golejewska - Competitiveness, Innovation and Regional Development. The Case of the Visegrad Group Countries

The article examines the competitiveness and innovativeness of 35 NUTS-2 Visegrad regions from 2001 to 2008, with a focus on the existence of clusters. The author undertakes to identify the most competitive and innovative clusters. She also looks at the impact of nationality and checks if high competitiveness was in each case accompanied by high innovativeness.
The author applies two classical methods of cluster analysis: the non-hierarchical k-means clustering algorithm and Ward’s hierarchical method.
The results show that capital regions tend to develop faster and that there is a significant diversity of regional competitiveness and innovativeness across the Visegrad Group, which brings together four Central European countries, Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia.
The main conclusion from the cluster analysis is that the development of regions in Visegrad Group countries depends on their “nationality” – regions tend to cluster within national borders, according to Golejewska. The analysis shows that this process intensified in 2008, so it is not a vestige of the previous system, the author says.
The correlation analysis found that innovative inputs were transformed into innovative outputs and that innovations had a positive and growing impact on regional competitiveness across the Visegrad Group. However, further input-output analysis and econometric research are needed to confirm these findings, the author says.

Keywords: regional competitiveness, innovation, cluster analysis, Central and Eastern European countries
JEL classification codes: R11, C38, 033, P25
Article: PDF



Dorota Czyżewska - The Competitiveness of the French Economy in the Wake of the Economic Crisis

The article investigates the competitive position of the French economy in comparison with other key European Union economies, taking into account available statistical data and competitiveness indexes. The analysis is made in the context of a decline in the competitiveness of the French economy in the wake of the economic crisis and an apparent lack of effective measures to overcome this process.
The author discusses the results of analyses of competitiveness of the French economy in 2011 and 2012, highlighting the reasons for the country’s declining competitiveness and outlining the measures taken to overcome the problem.
Czyżewska uses statistical data and descriptive analysis methods as the main research methods in the article. Statistics show that France has lost its competitive position, especially with regard to Germany, the author says. She discusses the reasons for this and looks at several measures proposed to overcome the problem. Overall, these measures reflect the complex economic situation of France and call for multi-pronged action in the French economy, according to the author. The list of economic reforms that need to be carried out is long, Czyżewska says, so the future competitive position of the French economy depends on the level of commitment to pressing ahead with these reforms.

Keywords: France, competitiveness, industry, labor market, economic crisis
JEL classification codes: F23, L52, F59, O22, G01
Article: PDF



Konrad Dymarski - Population Segmentation and the Estimated Size of the Shadow Economy

The article aims to ascertain how different assumptions about population segmentation affect the estimated size of the shadow economy, measured according to a method proposed for the first time by Pissarides and Weber [1989].
The method uses household survey data and applies a set of criteria to divide the population into households that operate fully legally in the formal, registered segment of the economy and those that generate incomes in the unregistered, tax-evading segment of the economy, referred to as the shadow economy.
The author measures the size of the shadow economy by modeling the relationship between income and expenses. He looks at how measurements can be affected by the use of different definitions of a specific set of criteria and also comes up with a set of completely different criteria for dividing the population than those usually proposed in the literature on the subject.
A study based on U.S. data (Consumer Expenditure Survey) for the 1980-2003 period shows that the way in which the population is divided is of fundamental importance to estimating the size of the shadow economy with the Pissarides and Weber [1989] method, Dymarski says. Depending on the segmentation criterion, estimates varied significantly. The upper limit for the size of the shadow economy as a percentage of GDP ranged from under 10% to around 40%. However, findings by other authors suggest that the 40% level is improbable, according to Dymarski.
The author also argues that the criterion on the basis of which the population is divided is far more important than the definitions used.

Keywords: shadow economy, expenditure function, self-employment
JEL classification codes: D12, H26, O17
Article: PDF

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