Contents of issue 7-8/2007
Marian Gorynia, Barbara Jankowska - The Influence of Business Clusters on the Competitiveness and Internationalization of Enterprises, summary
Wioletta Nawrot - The Structure of Financing Polish Enterprises in the Context of International Research, summary
Robert Grzanka - The Internationalization of the Service Sector, summary
Rafał Morawczyński - The Behavior of Small and Medium-Sized Exporting Businesses in Poland’s Małopolska Region Under the Theory of Gradual Internationalization, summary
Beata Błasiak-Nowak - Business Clusters as a Method for Accelerating the Development of Problem Regions, summary
, articleEUROPEAN INTEGRATION
Bartłomiej Rokicki - European Union Budget Revision and Cohesion Policy Reform, summary
, articleCONFRENCES - POLEMICS - REVIEWS
The Implications of Foreign Investment for Poland’s Regional Retail Networks - Urszula Kłosiewicz-Górecka
Book Review: Zdzisław Sadowski, W poszukiwaniu drogi rozwoju
, Polska Akademia Nauk, Komitet Prognoz „Polska 2000 Plus”, Warsaw 2006, 139 pp. - reviewed by Jacek Brdulak
The Podlasie Region: A Strategy of Change - Tadeusz Smuga
Marian Gorynia, Barbara Jankowska - The Influence of Business Clusters on the Competitiveness and Internationalization of Enterprises
The paper shows how business clusters promote cooperation among companies and how they contribute to the competitiveness and internationalization of enterprises.
The authors prove that a business cluster improves the competitiveness of member companies primarily by adding to their competitive potential and boosting their competition strategies. At the same time, the cluster has only an indirect effect on the competitive position of these businesses, the authors say. The relationship between competitiveness and internationalization is unclear. It is difficult to determine on the basis of available data if greater competitiveness resulting from a company’s participation in a business cluster leads to this company’s greater involvement in international business. It may well be, the authors say, that the relationship goes the other way: greater internationalization leads to increased competitiveness.Keywords
: business cluster, competitive potential, competitive position, competitiveness, internationalizationArticle
Wioletta Nawrot - The Structure of Financing Polish Enterprises in the Context of International Research
The author analyzes the structure of financing enterprises in Poland in 1992-2005. She looks at her findings through the lens of key business financing theories as well as data yielded by international research. In doing so, Nawrot aims to fill a gap in international research because most other researchers dealing with the subject focus on emerging markets in South America and Asia rather than Central and Eastern Europe.
The paper features a research method based on a detailed analysis of individual sources of financing in the analyzed period, taking into account changes in enterprises’ ownership structures as well as changes in the choice of sources of funds in the context of the overall changes in the economy.
Nawrot’s analyses reveal that changes in the structure of financing Polish enterprises—though consistent with international business financing theories and congruent with the results of analyses made for other emerging markets—largely stemmed from the specific conditions in which these companies operated in the analyzed period, following market-oriented reforms in the Polish economy.Keywords
: structure of financing, emerging markets, financing theoriesArticle
Robert Grzanka - The Internationalization of the Service Sector
The paper examines trends such as outsourcing and offshoring in international service operations, focusing on the macroeconomic and international aspects of the process. This especially involves determining the causes and scope of offshoring and the factors that encourage companies to move their service operations abroad. Grzanka also looks at the directions of these activities and the scope of the process. There is no uniform, precise definition of offshoring, the author notes, which is one of the reasons why it is impossible to determine the precise scope of this process. However, statistical research by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) involving the trade of services—confirmed by research conducted by Bardhan and Kroll (2003), Jensen and Kletzer (2005) and Van Welsum and Reif (2006), as well as polls carried out among businesses in the Netherlands and Denmark—shows that outsourcing and offshoring are still at an inceptive stage, and the scope of these operations is bound to increase in the future, especially in Europe. Poland is a host country for foreign direct investment and a destination for offshoring operations. As investors increasingly eye Central and Eastern European markets, attracting more offshoring investors to Poland will require further transformations in the country’s economy.Keywords
: internationalization, offshoring, outsourcing, host countryArticle
Rafał Morawczyński - The Behavior of Small and Medium-Sized Exporting Businesses in Poland’s Małopolska Region Under the Theory of Gradual Internationalization
The author endeavors to establish if Poland’s small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are undergoing internationalization in line with the rules described in the theory of gradual internationalization. This theory is generally used to explain the behaviors of companies on foreign markets. The author carries out a quantitative analysis on a sample of more than 100 exporting manufacturing enterprises based in Poland’s Małopolska province. The study shows that the behavior of most surveyed companies accords with the rules followed in other countries and the guidelines of the gradual internationalization theory. In particular, as their experience grows, companies are entering new markets and increasing the share of exports in their total revenue. Morawczyński’s study shows that companies are entering foreign markets at an increasingly faster rate. This conclusion is compatible with the latest findings in other countries. Beginning exporters usually choose countries that are considered to be close “psychologically,” the author says. Unexpectedly, Morawczyński finds a weaker-than-expected link between the level of internationalization and the system of knowledge associated with operations abroad. The surveyed companies break away from the pattern mapped out by the gradual internationalization theory. This is largely due to a global business concept increasingly popular in recent years whereby companies are encouraged to pursue global operations from inception onward.Keywords
: internationalization, exports, small and medium-sized enterprisesArticle
Beata Błasiak-Nowak - Business Clusters as a Method for Accelerating the Development of Problem Regions
The paper examines the ways in which business clusters contribute to an accelerated development of what are called problem regions. The author illustrates her theoretical analysis with examples of selected regions whose economic development has been accelerated by the establishment of production clusters.
The adopted method of research includes an analysis of the selected aspects of economic theory and selected case studies of business clusters around the world. Specifically, the paper focuses on the American state of Arizona as a region with a developed market economy; the southern Indian state of Karnataka as a developing region; Scotland as a region excessively dependent on declining industry; and Slovenia as a region in the process of economic transformation.
Business clusters are currently the most mature form of business organization that increases the probability of favorable economic effects in a problem region, the author says. Favorable economic effects generated by business clusters include economic cooperation and integration, external scale effects, internal synergy effects, as well as the multiplier and accelerator effects. All these effects improve the competitiveness of cluster members and consequently also of the host region, leading to accelerated economic development in the area.Keywords
: business cluster, regional development, scale effects, synergy, multiplier effect, accelerator effectArticle
Bartłomiej Rokicki - European Union Budget Revision and Cohesion Policy Reform
The article discusses potential changes in the European Union’s Cohesion Policy after 2013. The planned revision of the EU budget announced for 2008-2009 may become an excuse for starting talks on revising both the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and Cohesion Policy, the author says. The 15 old EU member states may seek to limit the scope of activities under the Cohesion Policy in a situation in which their own regions may be deprived of structural funds. The main arguments may include the limited effectiveness of Cohesion Policy and the low absorption of funds in new EU member states.
Theoretical studies and empirical research show that moving away from Cohesion Policy throughout the EU would be unfavorable to most new member states as well as the European Commission and regional authorities in EU15 countries. Paradoxically, it could also negatively influence the economic development of the less well developed regions in old member states. This explains why the European Commission may be forced to propose far-reaching changes in a bid to increase the effectiveness of cohesion programs and increase the attractiveness of Cohesion Policy for old EU member states, Rokicki notes. The article includes a simulation of the potential effects of such changes, but, for reasons of space, the author only discusses several possible solutions.Keywords
: budget revision, Cohesion Policy, Common Agricultural PolicyArticle