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Contents of issue 10/2008

Andrzej Cieślik - The Effect of Multinational Companies on the Fragmentation of Production and on Poland’s Intra-Industry Trade with Other OECD Countries, summary, article

Grzegorz Konat - Strategic Forking in the Development of Free/Open-Source Software, summary, article

Małgorzata Rószkiewicz, Dorota Węziak-Białowolska - The Measurement and Modeling of a Region’s Intellectual Capital: The Case of Poland, summary, article

Bogusław Guzik - Technological Competition Among Poland’s Largest Banks, summary, article


Book Review: Paweł Młodkowski, Pozaeuropejskie unie monetarne. Historia i funkcjonowanie (Non-European Monetary Unions: History and Rules), Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warsaw 2007, 233 pp. - reviewed by Adam Koronowski

Book Review: Marek Panfil (ed.), Finansowanie rozwoju przedsiębiorstwa. Studia przypadków (Financing Business Development: Case Studies), Difin, Warsaw 2008, 443 pp. - reviewed by Sławomir Listkiewicz

Regional Development and Sustainable Development - Tadeusz Smuga

Andrzej Cieślik - The Effect of Multinational Companies on the Fragmentation of Production and on Poland’s Intra-Industry Trade with Other OECD Countries

The article examines the role of multinational companies originating from OECD countries in the fragmentation of production processes in Poland. The author also discusses the ways in which multinational companies influence Poland’s foreign trade.
Cieślik sets out to check if multinational companies contribute to the fragmentation of international production processes and if their operations lead to a growing proportion of intra-industry trade in Poland’s overall trade with individual OECD countries. The author verifies this hypothesis empirically, using panel data for 29 OECD countries for the 1994-2006 period.
Statistical data for Poland’s foreign trade disprove the hypothesis. Empirical data obtained with the use of fixed and random effects estimators show that country-specific factors – rather than the operations of multinational companies – are responsible for the development of intra-industry trade between Poland and other OECD countries, Cieślik says. It thus turns out that incentives other than a desire to reduce production costs tend to be the key factors driving multinational companies in their business in Poland.
Cieślik also dispels worries frequently voiced in developed countries that a growing number of businesses may be tempted to move labor-intensive stages of production to emerging markets such as Poland.

Keywords: intra-industry trade, fixed and random effects estimators, multinational companies, fragmentation of production, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
Article: PDF

Grzegorz Konat - Strategic Forking in the Development of Free/Open-Source Software

The paper discusses a trend in the development of computer software known as “strategic forking.” This trend is an intrinsic feature of today’s “open-source community,” according to Konat.
To begin with, the article defines the term “source code” in reference to software” and it also explains the terms “open source” and “free software.” Moreover, it introduces the definition of Free/Open-Source Software (FOSS). In the following part of the article, Konat offers a microeconomic analysis of “strategic forking” to determine the motives guiding software engineers taking part in FOSS projects. The problem is discussed from the perspective of the theory of public goods, the demand-side approach to innovation, and other theories concerned with issues such as “hackers’ ethic” and “ego boosting.” Konat pays special attention to describing the “strategic forking” phenomenon with the use of classical microeconomic and enterprise theory tools developed by researchers Jean Tirole and Josh Lerner.
The author follows up with a comprehensive analysis of strategic forking as a key to explaining a fundamental discrepancy in the assessment of the motives that guide programmers taking part in the development of open-source software. The analysis focuses on the definition of strategic forking, the conditions determining this trend and its direct causes. Konat also looks at the implications of strategic forking and the factors due to which this approach has not become more widespread around the world.
The article closes with a review of issues that require further analysis, according to Konat. These include the issue of software distribution.

Keywords: strategic forking, free/open-source software, software production branch, user-driven innovation, hackers’ ethic, public goods, operating system
Article: PDF

Małgorzata Rószkiewicz, Dorota Węziak-Białowolska - The Measurement and Modeling of a Region’s Intellectual Capital: The Case of Poland

The article discusses a model for measuring regional intellectual capital and sets out to verify various indicators recommended in research reports. The authors check the applicability of these indicators in measuring the intellectual capital of Polish provinces.
The authors use a conceptual model developed by Węziak (Węziak, 2008) for measuring regional intellectual capital and combine it with the “confirmatory factor analysis” method. The analysis applies to 2005 data for Poland aggregated by province.
The article discusses two approaches to measuring Poland’s intellectual capital by province. A simpler approach that limits the number of indicators displayed better statistical properties, the authors say, and individual components of intellectual capital showed the desired correlations. This simpler model was also characterized by greater accuracy, according to the authors, because the evaluated components of intellectual capital as well as the overall value of intellectual capital showed strong correlations with economic growth indicators.
This approach made it possible for the authors to identify the key indicators that help measure Poland’s intellectual capital by province and its components, which include human capital, social capital, structural capital, and development capital. The authors note that human capital is strongly linked to the degree of respondents’ satisfaction with their education and fluency in English and the use of the internet and email. Social capital, in turn, is strongly tied to internet access, while development capital depends on per capita spending on research and development.

Keywords: intellectual capital, region, Węziak conceptual model, confirmatory factor analysis, Poland, education
Article: PDF

Bogusław Guzik - Technological Competition Among Poland’s Largest Banks

The author proposes a method for measuring technological competition among businesses and a method to determine the structure of technological competitiveness. To this end the author uses the CCR super-efficiency model applied in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA).
The proposed procedure is used in the study of technological competition among Poland’s 25 largest banks. Guzik uses a set of 2006 data published by Polish banking trade magazine Miesięcznik Finansowy Bank in June 2007.
The results obtained by the author show that foreign and private banks generally display the greatest potential for technological competition, Guzik says, while some of the banks that were spun off from the National Bank of Poland (NBP) at the start of the country’s transition to a market economy are the least capable of being competitive technologically. The same is true of banks controlled by state-owned enterprises and organizations, Guzik concludes.

Keywords: technological competition, Data Envelopment Analysis, CCR super-efficiency model, banks
Article: PDF

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