Gospodarka Narodowa
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Contents of issue 3/2010

Marta Gancarczyk - A Cluster Decline and Renewal Model, summary, article

Tomasz Tokarski - The Regional Diversification of Total Factor Productivity in Poland, summary, article

Joanna Mackiewicz-Łyziak - The Impact of Infrastructure on Productivity in the Polish Economy, summary, article

Jan Brzozowski, Marek Szarucki - The Economic Effects of Cash Transfers from Expatriate Workers, summary, article


FROM THE WORLD ECONOMY

Edmund S. Phelps - Macroeconomics for a Modern Economy, article


CONFRENCES - POLEMICS - REVIEWS

The Management of Labor Resources in the Car Industry at a Time of Crisis - Wanda Karpińska-Mizielińska, Tadeusz Smuga

Book Review: Stefan Krajewski, Prywatyzacja, restrukturyzacja, konkurencyjność polskich przedsiębiorstw (Privatization, Restructuring and the Competitiveness of Polish Enterprises), Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne, Warsaw 2009, 372 pp. - reviewed by Marian Gorynia

Book Review: Andrzej Szablewski (ed.), Migracja kapitału w globalnej gospodarce (The Migration of Capital in the Global Economy), Difin, Warsaw 2009, 473 pp. - reviewed by Jan K. Solarz

Book Review: Joanna Czech-Rogosz, Jacek Pietrucha, Rafał Żelazny (eds.), Koniunktura gospodarcza. Od bańki internetowej do kryzysu subprime (Business Cycles: From the Dot-Com Bubble to the Subprime Mortgage Crisis), C.H. Beck, Warsaw 2009, 289 pp. - reviewed by Marek Lubiński





Marta Gancarczyk - A Cluster Decline and Renewal Model

The paper proposes a model to describe the decline and renewal of business clusters based on the evolution of network ties. The proposed model relies on the idea of external network effects, and the author uses the results of research into the evolution of clusters with a varied level of technological advancement.
In response to the challenges of globalization and computerization, companies operating in clusters adopt strategies oriented toward a system of internal or external ties, according to Gancarczyk. Strategies oriented toward regional networks fail to protect businesses from threats related to being isolated from the rest of the economy, which implies the negative external effects of networks and a threat of cluster decline, the author says. On the other hand, strategies based on developing foreign ties linked with the relocation of selected components of the value chain (so-called selective relocation) make it possible to avoid isolation and generate positive scale effects, both internationally and globally. Relocation processes underlie the development of modular production networks in which standard components of the value chain are subject to scattering toward locations with a cost advantage, while components with a higher value added and linked with the development of knowledge and innovation tend to be concentrated in regional clusters, according to Gancarczyk.

Keywords: cluster, organizational network, modular production network, relocation
Article: PDF



Tomasz Tokarski - The Regional Diversification of Total Factor Productivity in Poland

The author analyzes the regional diversification of labor productivity, the capital-labor ratio, and total factor productivity (TFP) in Poland’s provinces in 1995-2007. He also undertakes to endogenize TFP on the basis of statistical data describing the structure of value added generated in agriculture, industry, construction and services, as well as data on the development of transport infrastructure, including the density of freeways, expressways and rail lines.
Using the concept of the macroeconomic function of production, Tokarski estimates TFP for each province in 1995-2007. Then the TFP levels are endogenized on the basis of variables describing the sector structure of the product market and the development of transportation infrastructure. The analyses described in the paper show that provinces with a higher proportion of value added generated in the service sector generally display a higher level of TFP. Among the variables describing transport infrastructure, the freeway and expressway network density has a statistically significant positive effect on TFP, while the density of rail lines does not have such an effect, the author says.

Keywords: total factor productivity (TFP), capital-labor ratio, macroeconomic production function, infrastructure, regional studies
Article: PDF



Joanna Mackiewicz-Łyziak - The Impact of Infrastructure on Productivity in the Polish Economy

The paper focuses on the link between infrastructure and productivity in the Polish economy. The researcher aims to estimate the direct elasticity of GDP with regard to infrastructure and check the indirect influence of infrastructure on productivity. The adopted research method is based on estimating a three-factor production function for Poland, covering capital, labor and infrastructure. Two forms of the production function were adopted, the Cobb-Douglas function and the translog function. The production function was estimated on the basis of data for Poland’s 16 provinces in 2000-2006.
The findings obtained by the author show that infrastructure is an important factor influencing production. The estimated direct elasticity of GDP to infrastructure ranged from 0.11 to 0.22 depending on the production function and the variables used. This level of elasticity is compatible with research findings for other countries, the author says. However, Mackiewicz-Łyziak’s research yielded no conclusive findings on the influence of infrastructure on productivity in the case of other production factors.

Keywords: infrastructure, productivity, production function, Cobb-Douglas function, translog function, province
Article: PDF



Jan Brzozowski, Marek Szarucki - The Economic Effects of Cash Transfers from Expatriate Workers

The paper examines the economic effects of cash transfers from Poles working abroad. The authors discuss selected methodological issues, including the treatment of cash transfers in international statistics and problems linked with the interpretation of the data. According to Brzozowski and Szarucki, cash transfers are usually examined in terms of their overall effect, while a more appropriate method would be to look at their net inflow, considering the outflow of funds from another country. Many researchers also tend to forget that such transfers are intended for private purposes, which limits the possibility of using them to spur a country’s economic growth, the authors say.
Brzozowski and Szarucki analyze the flow of cash transfers in Poland and elsewhere. Cash transfers from Poles working abroad have increased markedly in recent years, the authors say, because many people have left the country for economic reasons. The greatest inflow of net transfers was recorded in 2007-2008, at around $9 billion annually. Preliminary data for 2009 show that the global economic crisis has considerably reduced the possibility of transferring cash by expatriate workers to their families back home, the authors note.
The paper also discusses the results of research into cash transfers and the effects of their inflow in Poland and other countries. The aim is to show the possible consequences of cash transfers for a given economy, including the ways in which these funds could spur economic growth. In countries with relatively well-developed financial systems, cash transfers have led to a significant increase in consumption, while failing to boost investment, Brzozowski and Szarucki say. As a result, it is difficult to expect that such transfers will have a positive impact on economic growth in the longer term, the researchers conclude.

Keywords: expatriate workers, economic growth, cash transfers
Article: PDF

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